Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology

This tab contains the most frequently asked questions during informative meetings and the answers to them. All information contained in the replies is based on the references listed at the end of this section.

1. What is the aqueous colloid solution?

Colloid system (colloid, colloid system, colloid solution) – heterogeneous mixture, usually biphasic, which forms a system of two substances and one of the substances is usually dissolved in the latter substance (in this case in water - author's comment) Break-up (i.e. dispersion) of the dispersed substance is so intense that the mixture seems physically to be homogeneous, but it is not mixed at single particle level.

2. What are colloid silver and gold ionic solutions?

Colloid system (colloid, colloid solution) – heterogeneous mixture, usually biphasic, which forms a system of two substances and one of the substances is usually diluted in the latter substance: (silver Ag and/or Au ions) are diluted in the second phase: water. Currently they are usually produced in the electrolytic process by using electrodes made of silver or gold. Less frequently, they are produced in the electrolysis of aqueous solutions of silver or gold salts. Positively charged ions are obtained by breaking away at least one or several electrons from the atom. For example: if one electron is broken away from the silver atom, cation Ag+ is obtained, and if one electron is broken away from gold atom, cation Au+ is obtained, etc. The size of the cation is always smaller than the original atom. Breaking away of electron(s) causes the total repulsive forces between electrons to decrease and it results in the reduction of the electron cloud. Generation of the cation requires supplying an amount of energy which is called ionization energy. It is obtained by electrolytic process. Some producers of ion colloid solutions stabilise them by using polymers of various substances and/or additional ions of other substances e.g. the compounds of silica, boron in the protein matrix (technologies of pharmaceutical synthesis) and they are called "poetically”: mono-, di-, poli- ions.

Due to the reactivity of free and/or released ions, i.e. cations Ag+ and generation of harmful silver and/or other complex substances in the human organism, they are displaced by suspensive solutions of metallic silver and gold nanoparticles, obtained by laser ablation of metallic silver or gold in the aquous solution.

3. What are true nanoparticles of metallic silver and gold?

These are particles of metallic silver or gold, obtained by laser ablation in the aqueous environment. The most frequent Ag nanoparticles with 2-12 [nm] in diameter, containing several tens to a few hundred atoms and gold (Ag) nanoparticles. Their diameters are 12 – 18 [nm] and they contain several thousand atoms. In the dry form - dispersed - they accept (among others thanks to Van Der Waals motions) surface electric charge, they repel themselves and they became volatile by the so-called fluidization; thanks to this they can escape from the container "like cigarette smoke". They can be stored effectively within a liquid, e.g. where they form aqueous, dispersive, nonionic solution.

4. Are colloid silver and gold ion electrolytic solutions toxic and hazardous?

"The presence of silver was found in all tissues of sea and terrestrial organisms, in the concentration range of 0.005 – 0.6 ppm. Daily intake of silver by man is estimated at 1.8 – 80 μg. Silver can be absorbed to the organism from lungs as well as from the alimentary tract. People who are in contact directly with ion silver are extensively exposed to the absorption of ions by their organisms, even through skin. Then, after passing to the circulatory system and aggregating with plasma albumins it is moved to the liver, which is responsible for binding this metal in the organism. Silver is bound by the metallothionein (cysteine-rich, low molecular weight proteins) and other proteins similar to the metallothionein. It can increase metallothionein concentration which indicates biostimulating properties of the silver. Studies in rats showed that the liver is responsible for Ag accumulation in the organism after intravenous or subcutaneous injections. It was found that a healthy person excretes only 1 μg silver/24 hours. In some cases this level is considerably higher and it makes up ca 10 μg silver/day. These persons show a long-term increased Ag level in the form of silver sulphide. This form is insoluble. Excessive dose of ion silver leads to the so-called argyria which manifests in a local or generalized form. In order to evoke argyria, minimum oral dose administered for a half of the year should be at least 25 to 30g. Such increased silver content in the food causes discolouration of skin and membranes in the form of blue-grey spots, including discolouration of eyes. The generalized form of argyria manifests itself by the occurrence of generalized pigmentation, especially on the face, even in the form of black spots with a metallic sheen. With time, in people suffering from argyria there are permanent deficiencies of silver in the walls of blood capillaries and tissues related to them. High doses of colloid silver administered intravenously cause death as a result of oedema.”

Source: quotation from BROMAT. CHEM. TOKSYKOL. – XL, 2007, 2, str. 205 – 209, Renata Żelazowska, Kazimierz Pasternak „METALE SZLACHETNE: SREBRO (Ag), ZŁOTO (Au), PLATYNA (Pt)W BIOLOGII I MEDYCYNIE” Chair and Medical Chemistry Institute of the Faculty of Medicine of the Medical Academy in Lublin.

5. Are aqueous solutions of "true" metallic silver and gold safe?

Yes, they are safe because these are noble metals and they do not easily react with human and/or animal organisms (see question 3). Silver and gold occurring in aqueous solutions under the brand FOR HEALTH – NANOBEAUTY have a form of spherical metallic artefacts with the diameters between several to a dozen of nanometres and thanks to it they are easily excreted by epithelium (via intercellular spaces) with excreted urine, saliva, mucus, tears, sweat, etc. In accordance with the EU legislation, all nanoparticles smaller than 100 [nm] must be registered in CPNP portal base (Cosmetic Products Regulation of the European Parliament and Council no 1223/2009 on the notification of cosmetics in the register of CPNP portal – Cosmetics Products Notification Portal, in accordance with article 16 concerning notification of nanoparticle materials and the manual on the introduction of nanoparticle components to the base in the system of authentication CPNP base states that the number of the above mentioned CPNP is classified information  with an absolute ban on revealing it in materials made public and a ban on declaring its presence on packaging, labels, informative and advertisement materials).

6. What legislation regulates registration and marketing of nanoparticle products in the UE?

In accordance with the EU legislation, all nanoparticles smaller than 100 [nm] must be registered in CPNP portal base (Cosmetic Products Regulation of the European Parliament and Council no 1223/2009 on the notification of cosmetics in the register of CPNP portal – Cosmetics Products Notification Portal, in accordance with article 16 concerning notification of nanoparticle materials and the manual on the introduction of nanoparticle components to the base in the system of authentication CPNP base states that the number of the above mentioned CPNP is classified information  with an absolute ban on revealing it in materials made public and a ban on declaring its presence on packaging, labels, informative and advertisement materials).

7. Are nanoBeauty products legal and safe?
  Products manufactured by FOR HEALTH Sp. z o.o. company have obtained a reference number in CPNP register after meeting all attributes required by the cosmetic regulation issued by European Parliament and Council no 1223/2009 on the notification of cosmetics in CPNP (Cosmetics Products Notification Portal), in accordance with article 16. Certificate of effective and correct registration was issued by the Institute of Occupational Medicine, the office for notification in CPNP base.
8. How to distinguish aqeuous nanoparticle solutions of metallic silver and/or gold from ionic, electrolytic solutions?
Properties  Actual nanopaticiple solutions Ion colloids
Ag (nano) Au (nano)
Method of production Laser ablation Electrolysis
Colour Brown Red Colourless
Test with the application of the beam of the laser light Sparkling nanoparticles in the line light No Effects
9. What units are used for determination of nanoparticles in products and solutions?

(English parts per million) – way of expression very diluted solutions of chemical compounds. Concentration is a derivative of the molar fraction and it determines how many particles of chemical compound fall on 1 million of parts of the solution.

1ppm=1 / 10⁶=1 x 10⁻⁶=1 x 10⁻⁴% tj. (one millionth, one ten thousandth of a per cent) In the case of a gas mixture concentration expressed in ppm by multiplying the latter by a million. In the case of liquid solutions, the situation is complicated because density and molecular mass must be taken into account. Unit [ppm] is sometimes used for the expression of the mass fraction, but in such a case special information should be included by writing, for example ppm (by weight). If there is no additional information after the abbreviation ppm, it is assumed that mole fraction is referred to.
10. What units are used for determination of nanoparticles in products and solutions?

(English parts per million) – way of expression very diluted solutions of chemical compounds. Concentration is a derivative of the molar fraction and it determines how many particles of chemical compound fall on 1 million of parts of the solution.

1ppm=1 / 10⁶=1 x 10⁻⁶=1 x 10⁻⁴%  tj. (one millionth, one ten thousandth of a per cent)

In the case of a gas mixture concentration expressed in ppm by multiplying the latter by a million. In the case of liquid solutions, the situation is complicated because density and molecular mass must be taken into account.

Unit [ppm] is sometimes used for the expression of the mass fraction, but in such a case special information should be included by writing, for example ppm (by weight). If there is no additional information after the abbreviation ppm, it is assumed that mole fraction is referred to.

11. What does "INCI" mean?

In accordance with EU legislation the composition of each cosmetic must be declared in INCI nomenclature (International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients). This declaration must be on the packaging of the product or on the leaflet if the packaging is too small. The nomenclature is international. As late as 1997, the European Union determined an accurate list of components which should be given in descending order in terms of amounts.

12. What references and studies are a source of information on silver and gold nanoparticles?
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  • ^ Samsung's Silver Nano Washer Ads Reportedly Exaggerated, Nov 21, 2005

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  • ^ University of Edinburgh School of Physics: Colloids (mentions Elixir of Life) 20.^ Paul Mulvaney, University of Melbourne, The beauty and elegance of Nanocrystals, Use since Roman times

  • ^ C. N. Ramachandra Rao, Giridhar U. Kulkarni, P. John Thomasa, Peter P. Edwards, Metal nanoparticles and their assemblies, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2000, 29, 27-35. (on-line here; mentions Cassius and Kunchel)

  • ^ S.Zeng et al. (2011). "A review on functionalized gold nanoparticles for biosensing applications". Plasmonics 6 (3): 491-506. doi:10.1007/s11468-011-9228-1.

  • ^ a b Sharma, Vivek; Park, Kyoungweon; Srinivasarao, Mohan (2009). "Colloidal dispersion of gold nanorods: Historical background, optical properties, seed-mediated synthesis, shape separation and self-assembly". Material Science and Engineering Reports 65 (1–3): 1–38. doi:10.1016/j.mser.2009.02.002.

  • ^ a b V. R. Reddy, "Gold Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Applications" 2006, 1791, and references therein

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  • ^ Manna, A.; Chen, P.; Akiyama, H.; Wei, T.; Tamada, K.; Knoll, W. (2003). "Optimized Photoisomerization on Gold Nanoparticles Capped by Unsymmetrical Azobenzene Disulfides". Chem. Mater. 15 (1): 20–28. doi:10.1021/cm0207696.

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  • ^ Double labeling with colloidal gold particles of different sizes

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  • ^ Gold sodium thiomalate: adverse effects including allergy to gold, tolerance to gold decreasing with age, skin and renal complications.

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  • ^ Robert Eason - Pulsed Laser Deposition of Thin Films: Applications-Led Growth of Functional Materials Wiley-Interscience | 2006 | ISBN: 0471447099

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